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How will the universe end?


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  1. #1
    C.I.A. cromagnon's Avatar
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    Default How will the universe end?


    Theories about the end of universe

    The fate of the universe is determined by the density of the universe. The preponderance of evidence to date, based on measurements of the rate of expansion and the mass density, favors a universe that will continue to expand indefinitely, resulting in the "big freeze" scenario below.[1]
    [edit] Big Freeze or Heat death

    Main article: Heat death of the universe
    The Big Freeze is a scenario under which continued expansion results in a universe that asymptotically approaches absolute zero temperature. It could, in the absence of dark energy, occur only under a flat or hyperbolic geometry. With a positive cosmological constant, it could also occur in a closed universe. This scenario is currently the most commonly accepted theory within the scientific community. A related scenario is Heat death, which states that the universe goes to a state of maximum entropy in which everything is evenly distributed, and there are no gradients which are needed to sustain information processing, one form of which is life. The Heat Death scenario is compatible with any of the three spatial models, but requires that the universe reach an eventual temperature minimum.
    [edit] Big Rip: Finite Lifespan

    Main article: Big Rip

    An animated impression of a galaxy undergoing the Big Rip


    In the special case of phantom dark energy, which has even more negative pressure than a simple cosmological constant, the density of dark energy increases with time, causing the rate of acceleration to increase, leading to a steady increase in the Hubble constant. As a result, all material objects in the universe, starting with galaxies and eventually (in a finite time) all forms, no matter how small, will disintegrate into unbound elementary particles and radiation, ripped apart by the phantom energy force and shooting apart from each other. The end state of the universe is a singularity, as the dark energy density and expansion rate becomes infinite. For a possible timeline based on current physical theories, see 1 E19 s and more.
    [edit] Big Crunch


    The Big Crunch. The vertical axis can be considered as either plus or minus time.


    Main article: Big Crunch
    The Big Crunch theory is a symmetric view of the ultimate fate of the universe. Just as the Big Bang started a cosmological expansion, this theory postulates that the average density of the universe is enough to stop its expansion and begin contracting. The end result is unknown; a simple extrapolation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity, but at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered (See Quantum gravity).
    This scenario allows the Big Bang to have been immediately preceded by the Big Crunch of a preceding universe. If this occurs repeatedly, we have an oscillatory universe. The universe could then consist of an infinite sequence of finite universes, each finite universe ending with a Big Crunch that is also the Big Bang of the next universe. Theoretically, the oscillating universe could not be reconciled with the second law of thermodynamics: entropy would build up from oscillation to oscillation and cause heat death. Other measurements suggested the universe is not closed. These arguments caused cosmologists to abandon the oscillating universe model. A somewhat similar idea is embraced by the cyclic model, but this idea evades heat death, because of an expansion of the branes that dilutes entropy accumulated in the previous cycle.
    [edit] Big Bounce

    Main article: Big Bounce
    The Big Bounce is a theorized scientific model related to the beginning of the known Universe. It derives from the oscillatory universe or cyclic repetition interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe.
    According to one version of the Big Bang theory of cosmology, in the beginning the universe had infinite density. Such a description seems to be at odds with everything else in physics, and especially quantum mechanics and its uncertainty principle.[citation needed] It is not surprising, therefore, that quantum mechanics has given rise to an alternative version of the Big Bang theory. Also, if the universe is closed, this theory would predict that once this universe collapses it will spawn another universe in an event similar to the Big Bang after a universal singularity is reached or a repulsive quantum force causes re-expansion.
    [edit] Multiverse: no complete end

    Main article: Multiverse
    One multiverse hypothesis states that our uni-"verse" is merely one Big Bang among an infinite number of simultaneously expanding Big Bangs that are spread out over endless distances (open space).
    Each "verse" may be either matter or antimatter, with an equal number in existence at any given time. As the "verses" expand they collide and matter and antimatter annihilate, releasing energy. Heat death of a finite universe would be predicted as entropy increases, however, the infinite size of the multiverse and the infinite number of "verses" could mean that new "verses" would be formed as old "verses" were annihilated.
    A chain reaction multiverse would be analogous to a fireworks display (each explosion representing a Big Bang) that starts in one neighborhood and is followed by fireworks displays in surrounding neighborhoods and then in neighborhoods further out. The chain reaction of Big Bangs would continue to expand as Big Bang fuel is consumed. If the multiverse is open and the fuel is infinite then the chain reaction would expand forever. Of course, it is not known what the "fuel" is, but it is logical to assume that matter and energy are the product of a transformation from a real reactant, possibly the Higgs boson.
    The multiverse as a whole may never end completely.
    [edit] False vacuum

    If the vacuum is not in its lowest energy state (a false vacuum), it could tunnel into a lower energy state. [2] This is called the vacuum metastability event. This has the potential to fundamentally alter our universe; in more audacious scenarios even the various physical constants could have different values, severely affecting the foundations of matter, energy, and spacetime. It is also possible that all structures will be destroyed instantaneously, without any forewarning[3].
    [edit] Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics

    According to the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, the universe will not end this way. Instead, each time a quantum event happens that causes the universe to decay from a false vacuum to a true vacuum state, the universe splits into several new worlds. In some of the new worlds the universe decays; in some others the universe continues as before.
    [edit] Cosmic uncertainty

    Each possibility described so far is based on a very simple form for the dark energy equation of state. But as the name is meant to imply, we know almost nothing of the real physics of the dark energy. If the theory of inflation is true, the universe went through an episode dominated by a different form of dark energy in the first moments of the big bang; but inflation ended, indicating an equation of state much more complicated than those assumed so far for present-day dark energy. It is possible that the dark energy equation of state could change again resulting in an event that would have consequences which are extremely difficult to parametrize or predict. It is also possible the universe may never have an end and continue in its present state forever.

  2. #2
    Because we are poor, shall we be vicious? vern's Avatar
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    Some say the world will end in fire,
    Some say in ice.
    From what I've tasted of desire
    I hold with those who favor fire.
    But if it had to perish twice,
    I think I know enough of hate
    To say that for destruction ice
    Is also great
    And would suffice.
    LeeLeePot likes this.

  3. #3
    C.I.A.
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    Theres no forever but I am sure of it, there's an end for everything
    So let it be....

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    GOD is the alpha and the omega

  5. #5
    C.I.A. rodsky's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by lomotel View Post
    GOD is the alpha and the omega
    Please abide by the subforum rules and regulations. Keep to the topic.

    -RODION

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    C.I.A. coolnezz's Avatar
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    that is the least of my worries.... lol.

  7. #7
    C.I.A. W.Axl Rose's Avatar
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    Only God knows.

  8. #8
    Elite Member darkraven's Avatar
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    there are many theories on how the universe will end... as there are many theories how it started....

    i think karon, la pajud na find out how it started... basta for sure if it started from something, it will end to something...

    pa pagkakaron, we can't pin point how it will end... ang makatubag rajud ana is ang generation nga matymingan ana nga event... hopefully not our generation... hehehe...

  9. #9
    C.I.A. josephdc's Avatar
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    In a "heat death," I guess.

    OT: I've always been fascinated by the question, "What's beyond the universe?" If the universe is all space and time, matter and energy, what, if anything, lies beyond it? I guess, nothing? But I find that the idea of nothing existing beyond the universe is, I don't know, quite... bizarre.

  10. #10
    C.I.A. rodsky's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by W.Axl Rose View Post
    Only God knows.
    Please abide by the subforum rules and regulations. Keep to the topic.

    -RODION

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